Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavior disorder of children and adolescents.
The hyperactive or «difficult» child is a child with high distractibility, difficulty concentrating, failure to complete a task, restlessness, talkativeness, obliviousness, problems with studying or teachers, etc.
According to the researches of domestic and western experts, up to 10-15% of children and adolescents suffer from a neurological deficit, stemming from disturbance of attention.
Attention Deficit Disorder (STD) occurs in two main forms:
Attention disorder is often accompanied by other neurological disorders:
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a result of special neurological disorders!
If such disorders are not corrected in time, then intellectually, the child will most likely prove to be uncompetitive in the future.
Without posing a direct threat to life, attention deficit disorder is a serious threat to the healthy development of child's personality, development of necessary social connections, intellectual development, achievement of life goals.
The cause of ADHD has a biological basis and lies in certain impaired functioning of the brain.
Currently, teachers and doctors note an extraordinary increase in the number of children with a diagnosis of «Attention Disorder Syndrome». According to domestic and foreign experts, up to 10-15% of children and adolescents suffer from some form of this syndrome, which has many clinical manifestations.
The term «attention deficit disorder» arise from the broader concept of «minimal cerebral dysfunction» in the early 80s.
This syndrome is widespread among children's population (from 3% to 5%), and is more prevalent in boys than in girls.
Key ADHD indicators (signs):
The difficulties of impaired attention include, in particular, the difficulties of its retention.
Attention deficit is especially evident in situations new to the child when they need to act without assistance.
The physiological mechanisms of impaired attention in children of different age groups in the study of the characteristics of the orientational reaction (OR):
Conclusion: while in primary school age, the distinctive manifestations of attention deficit are its weakness and instability, then for senior students, prevails insufficient selectivity of attention, as a reflection of reduced ability to ignore insignificant information.
Active manifestation of ADHD coincides with the critical periods of psycho-verbal development:
I period: refers to the age of 1-2 years when the intensive development of cortical speech zones occurs and the formation of speech skills begins.
II period: refers to the age of 3 years - the child has an increased vocabulary, coherent phrasal speech is improved, memory and attention are actively developing.
III period (critical): refers to the age of 6-7 years and coincides with the beginning of the formation of written speech, reading, and writing skills. At this age, children with ADHD have difficulty forming learning and problem solving skills.
At the heart of the pathogenesis of ADHD is a dysfunction of brain's behavioral control system.
This behavior control system is involved in the selection of necessary actions, the suppression of unnecessary actions, and switching from one activity to another.
At the present stage, the organization of attention and motor control functions is linked to executive functions concept , or used with the term «control functions». Control functions are responsible for self-regulation, which means self-awareness, planning, self-control, self-esteem, and in charge of:
These mental processes and skills are provided mainly thanks to the functioning of the prefrontal parts of the frontal lobes and their connections with the basal ganglia.
Neurophysiological and neuromorphological studies have revealed a disfunction in the formation of functional relationships between the midline cerebral structures, between them and various parts of the cerebral cortex in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, as well as changes in the motor and orbitofrontal areas of the cortex, basal ganglia.
Modern theories as an anatomical defect in ADHD include the frontal lobe and, above all, the prefrontal part, as well as the subcortical nuclei and the bulbothalamic tracts that connect them.
Characteristics of EEG of children with AHDH:
To date, it is considered proven that the cause of ADD has a biological - brain - basis. Therefore, the treatment of the syndrome is mainly pharmacological with a lot of side effects.
Biofeedback is an alternative to the drug treatment of ADHD.
The effectiveness of biofeedback therapy in the treatment of ADD has been proven by numerous studies by both domestic and foreign experts. Biofeedback therapy is effective in the case of correction of the following ADHD components:
Scientific studies on the use of biofeedback therapy in the correction practice of ADHD have shown that the biofeedback method is not less effective than that of ritalin or strattera (approximately 65-75%), in some cases the effectiveness of biofeedback is higher than that of pharmacological methods and in unlike neurotropic drugs, it has no negative side effects.
The goal of biofeedback training is usually to increase fast activity in the beta-1 rhythm range while suppressing theta activity.
In training with the method of EEG-biofeedback, visual, acoustic, less often tactile signals are used as reinforcements. Visual feedback is provided by changing the size, color, brightness of the image and other parameters of the object on the display screen depending on the power, amplitude, percentage of occurrence in the EEG of controlled activity. The visual signal is sometimes supplemented by an acoustic feedback signal.
It is important to note that the success of correction using the functional biofeedback method depends on the emotional, personal and intellectual state of individual.
With severe mental impairments (memory, attention, thinking, will), the effectiveness of the method can be improved by individually selecting images and their contents for each patient.
Many patients who have undergone biofeedback training, have improved their ability to concentrate for a longer time, increased the amount of auditory and verbal memory, and reinforced their mental performance.
This allows us to consider biofeedback training not only as a method of treating functional disorders in a specific system of the body, but also as an active way of self-correction of the intellectual and emotional sphere.
With the advent of biofeedback technologies, the situation with the treatment of ADD changed in about 20 years, where biofeedback therapy for attention deficit disorder treated thousands of children and adolescents (more than 700 medical centers in the USA provide such treatment). According to generalized statistics, about 50% of them completely got rid of START symptoms and do not need drug treatment. The rest have an improvement to a greater or lesser degree, most often expressed in a lower dose of the drug.
The received data is transferred to a PC and processed by a biofeedback expert using special software to determine the key functional components of the brain activity of the child.
To achieve this, the expert sets certain target parameters in the software, and the child aims to reach them in the process of completing a task or watching a cartoon. Such game motivation makes child’s brain change the nature of its work towards more stable and functional states.
The software enables the psychologist, regressologist, psychotherapist to use the BrainBit NeuroFit neurointerface for psychoemotional correction using the Biofeedback method based on the analysis of biorhythms of the child's brain.
Results from training with BrainBit NeuroFit system:
The real benefits of BrainBit NeuroFit: